Carbon Dioxide also Contribute to Carbon Neutrality?

Carbon Dioxide also Contribute to Carbon Neutrality, What does carbon dioxide also contribute to carbon neutrality, Carbon dioxide also contribute to carbon neutrality, Carbon dioxide also contribute to carbon neutrality in climate change, Carbon dioxide also contribute to carbon neutrality essay, carbon neutral examples, why is carbon neutrality important, carbon neutral vs net zero, what does carbon neutral mean for a company.

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Can carbon dioxide also contribute to carbon neutrality? Learn about carbon dioxide “power bank”

As we all know, carbon dioxide is the main waste gas emitted by global industries and is a typical greenhouse gas . From this point of view, it can be said to be a proper waste.

As we all know, we can be said to be at the forefront of the world in controlling carbon emissions, and our main focus is to be a responsible big country. From this point of view, this carbon dioxide is harmful and not beneficial to us. Is this really the case…?

Don’t worry, we have black technology that can turn carbon dioxide, a waste product, into a magic weapon for energy storage , and create a large carbon dioxide “power bank” so that it can also help achieve the “double carbon goal”.

Let’s first understand the concept of energy storage.

The concept of energy storage

Energy storage, that is, the storage of energy, refers to the process of converting one form of energy into another form of energy through media or equipment, storing it, and releasing it when needed. Energy storage is divided into cold storage, heat storage and electricity storage. The power bank we are talking about is a kind of electricity storage.

The idea of ​​storing electrical energy did not appear out of thin air. As early as ancient Greece, people already knew that amber fragments can generate electricity to attract light particles after friction. However, the electricity generated by friction dissipates very easily. Massenbrock from Leiden University in the Netherlands saw that the electricity he had finally collected disappeared easily in the air, and he tried to find a way to preserve electricity. So in 1746, he invented the “Lei” device for collecting electric charges . Dun bottle “. This was the earliest device to store electricity.

Leyden jar | Image source: Wikipedia

Technology is always evolving over time. In modern times, the ways we store electricity have become diverse, such as electrochemical energy storage , pumped hydro energy storage , compressed air energy storage , and carbon dioxide energy storage .

Why energy storage?

Currently, much of the electricity we use comes from coal-fired power generation . Burning coal to generate electricity produces large amounts of carbon dioxide, which is a greenhouse gas and is not friendly to our environment. Therefore, we thought of using renewable energy sources such as wind energy and solar energy to achieve energy transformation and reduce carbon dioxide emissions from the source.

Data released by the National Energy Administration on July 31 showed that as of the end of June, China’s renewable energy installed capacity reached 1.322 billion kilowatts, historically surpassing coal power and accounting for approximately 48.8% of China’s total installed capacity. Data show that the current total installed power generation capacity in the country has reached 2.71 billion kilowatts, a year-on-year increase of 10.8%. Among them, the installed hydropower capacity is 418 million kilowatts, the installed wind power capacity is 389 million kilowatts, the installed photovoltaic power generation capacity is 470 million kilowatts, and the installed biomass power generation capacity is 43 million kilowatts. Relevant agencies predict that by 2050, renewable energy is expected to account for 78.0% of China’s energy system.

However, wind energy and solar energy have significant intermittency , volatility and uncertainty and other disadvantages. The electricity generated is not stable, and it is difficult to match the different characteristics of users’ electricity consumption during the day and night. Moreover, the electricity consumption of users is not only different during the day and night, but also the electricity used in different seasons is different.

According to research, China’s electricity supply and demand are increasingly characterized by ” abundant in normal times and tense in extreme situations ” and ” overall abundant but partially tense “. The peak summer season that has just ended has seen the country’s temperatures continue to rise and the load of air conditioning and refrigeration has been continuously released; the peak winter season that is about to begin and the heating demand brought about by the drop in temperature have brought considerable challenges to energy consumption.

At this time, the energy storage system plays the role of ” peak shaving and valley filling ” for the power grid. It is like a large power bank. It is stored when there is less electricity and more electricity is generated, and when there is more electricity and insufficient electricity is generated, it is stored. Just release. If we are equipped with a power bank in each link of power generation, transmission, distribution, and consumption, we can match the power generation with the user’s electricity consumption, which not only meets our electricity needs, but also reduces the waste of excess electricity.

What technology is carbon dioxide “power bank”?

Earlier we mentioned pumped hydro energy storage, compressed air energy storage and carbon dioxide energy storage. These three methods are all large-scale, long-term energy storage technologies that can be used for peak shaving . But different energy storage methods have their own pros and cons. Pumped storage is an energy storage technology that converts electric energy into water potential energy and stores it. It has a large installed capacity and is relatively mature in application. However, it has the disadvantages of high geographical environment requirements, long construction period, large initial investment, and damage to the ecological environment. and other objective questions.

Compressed air energy storage and carbon dioxide energy storage are both compressed gas energy storage technologies .

Compressed air energy storage tank | Image source: China Energy Storage and Energy Storage

Carbon dioxide energy storage system | Image source: Beijing Boruiding Energy Technology Co., Ltd.

From the physical properties of the working fluid, the critical point of carbon dioxide (7.39 MPa and 31.4 ℃) is easier to liquefy than air (3.77 MPa and -140.5 ℃) , and carbon dioxide is non-toxic, non-flammable, and has a safety level of A1 , and supercritical carbon dioxide ( S-CO₂) has excellent thermodynamic properties: low viscosity, high density, and good thermal conductivity . The storage density of CO₂ is greater than that of air under the same state and pressure , and is the highest when stored in liquid state. Therefore, the carbon dioxide energy storage system has higher energy storage potential.

Carbon dioxide energy storage is a promising new large-scale long-term energy storage technology . It has the characteristics of high electricity-to-electricity conversion efficiency, high energy storage density, long life, and low cost. It can meet the needs of large-scale power consumption of renewable energy. , grid peak shaving and valley filling, thermal power storage peak shaving and other huge market demands, and has good economic and social benefits.

As shown in the figure, the carbon dioxide energy storage system mainly consists of carbon dioxide high and low pressure storage tanks, compressors, turbines (steam turbines), cold storage heat exchangers and thermal storage subsystems . Its working principle can be divided into two processes: energy storage stage and energy release stage.

Basic schematic diagram of carbon dioxide energy storage system | Image source: Institute of Physics and Chemistry Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences

When storing energy , the low-pressure gaseous carbon dioxide in the low-pressure storage tank is compressed to a supercritical state by the compressor. At the same time, it enters the intercooler to absorb the compression heat and stores the heat in the heat storage tank through the heat storage medium. Finally, the carbon dioxide is liquefied and stored by normal temperature water. in high pressure storage tanks;

Basic schematic diagram of carbon dioxide energy storage system | Image source: Institute of Physics and Chemistry Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences

When releasing energy , the carbon dioxide in the high-pressure storage tank is heated and vaporized by the heater, and then enters the turbine to drive the turbine impeller to generate electricity. At the same time, the cold energy of the low-temperature heat storage medium at the heater outlet is stored in the cold storage tank. The carbon dioxide from the flat outlet returns to the low-pressure storage tank.

The system inputs industrial low-peak power or wind and solar power curtailment, stores it as carbon dioxide internal energy, pressure energy and thermal energy of storage working fluid, and releases carbon dioxide to drive turbine power generation during peak power consumption to achieve the integration of renewable energy into the grid and The power grid can store energy for peak shaving , and at the same time, the system operation can also achieve regional heating with heat load , relying on regional distributed energy systems to achieve efficient multi-energy joint supply.

In what scenarios can carbon dioxide energy storage be applied?

First of all, on the power generation side , the carbon dioxide energy storage system can serve as a power bank for wind, solar and other new energy power stations and a power bank for coal-fired thermal power plants.

Carbon dioxide energy storage technology is also very useful on the power grid side . We often see in the news that various large-scale power outages have caused huge economic losses to a large number of households or operating factories. If the distribution station of the power grid at this time Equipped with a carbon dioxide “power bank”, then at this time we can use the electricity stored in carbon dioxide to give priority to some key areas and save a lot of economic losses.

In the same way, we can also use carbon dioxide energy storage technology on the user side , such as in some industrial parks and ocean platform microgrids with large power consumption.

The future of carbon dioxide energy storage

Carbon dioxide energy storage is a new type of long-term large-scale energy storage technology, and it is in a critical period of technology demonstration and promotion. There is a trillion-level energy storage market behind it. If it is promoted on a large scale, it will produce huge economic benefits.

At present, the Italian Energy Dome company built a 4MW·h “carbon dioxide battery” pilot project in June 2023 ; in August 2023, the scientific research team of the Institute of Physics and Chemistry of the Chinese Academy of Sciences also built the country’s first 100-kilowatt carbon dioxide battery in Langfang City, Hebei Province. Energy storage demonstration and verification project . In addition to demonstration projects, there are currently larger-scale, 100-megawatt projects being planned . What is the concept of a 100-megawatt carbon dioxide energy storage system? For example, a 100MW / 400MW·h carbon dioxide energy storage system (100MW refers to its power generation, 400MW·h refers to its power generation capacity), a capacity of 400MW·h means that the system can generate 400,000 kWh of electricity. Based on the monthly electricity consumption of 350 to 450 kilowatt hours per household, the system can provide nearly a thousand households with electricity for one month after completing one charge and discharge. The system only takes a few hours to complete a charge and a discharge.

At present, countries around the world have successively set dual carbon targets that are consistent with their national conditions, and China is no exception. From the perspective of technological advancement, carbon dioxide energy storage is a new technology that can support “carbon peaking and carbon neutrality”. It can ensure the connection of a high proportion of renewable energy to the grid and the security of the grid. It can also accelerate the transformation of the energy structure. At the same time, It can also produce good economic and ecological benefits . In addition to reducing carbon dioxide emissions from the source, carbon dioxide energy storage can also be combined with carbon capture technology. During the compressed carbon dioxide energy storage process, a large amount of carbon dioxide is stored. Storing this carbon dioxide and using it as a “power bank” can reduce carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, thereby mitigating the greenhouse effect and maintaining the ecological environment.


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