As oil prices reduce, many people are changing occupations and business lines. Nigerians are not an exception. Many people in Nigeria are slowly changing businesses and gradually investing in the agricultural sector.
While some invest in crop farming, others invest in rearing and selling different kinds of farm animals. In this article, we will be talking about pig farming.
Pig farming is one of the most lucrative businesses in the agricultural sector. But sadly, many people feel that pig farming is not so profitable, and they decide to stay away from it. This is very untrue, and as much as it might sound weird to you that pig farming is making millions for many Nigerian youths who are in the business.
Despite the extensive information on the internet, many people in Nigeria are still ignorant about pig farming. While some avoid the business because of the dirtiness of owning a pig farm, others do not just want to be involved in pig farming. This can be a perfect sector for you to cash out big, especially now we do not have many people.
If you have been thinking of the right agricultural business to venture into, or you already have your mind on pig farming, but you are unsure of how to go about it, then you need to read this article to the end. In this article, I have talked about everything you need to know about pig farming.
Is Pig Farming Business Really Profitable?
Pigs are non-demanding animals, and they can survive in harsh conditions. This makes it very easy to rear pigs because you don’t have to spend a lot of your resources feeding and taking care of the animal.
Pigs also grow very fast and reproduce a lot of piglets in a short time. A typical pig can produce 11 to 15 piglets twice a year. This is a very high productivity level, and it attracts a lot of farmers. It is even more interesting that pigs grow very fast and are big when they attain full maturity. The weight of pigs determines their cost or worth, which makes their market value increase even more.
Pork meat is getting acceptance and is quickly becoming a favorite amongst many Nigerians. Local vendors make a lot of money selling barbequed pork meat to people on the streets.
Even hotels, bars, and lounges have a special menu for clients and customers who want pork meat in their meals. You might be wondering why a lot of people love pork. It is simply because of the superb taste and huge quantity of protein contained in it. Pork meat is also used in making sausages and other food products in the food industry.
From the above-listed reasons, it is evident that pig farming is a very lucrative business. You can make a lot of money from pig farming while spending a small amount on management. Besides, it is very easy to own a pig farm. Don’t worry; I will tell you what you need to know about starting pig farming.
What is Pig Farming?
Pig farming is referred to as raising and growing pigs for food consumption or industrial use. Pig farming is classified under the branch of agriculture known as animal husbandry.
Advantages of Pig Farming
- The cost of production is low, unlike other animals.
- Pigs have a faster growth rate.
- Pigs have a high production capacity. They can produce up to 15 piglets in a single birth.
- The cost of management of a pig far is relatively low.
- It creates employment opportunities.
- Pig dung can be used as manure.
Steps to Start a Pig Farming Business in Nigeria
In establishing a pig farm in Nigeria, there are specific steps you need to follow to get the best. They are outlined and explained comprehensively below.
Secure a Farmland in a Good Location
This is the very first step in starting a pig farming business. In fact, in pig farming, the land is one of your most unimportant and necessary investments. Pigs require a large land area to walk around and graze.
If you intend to establish a big pig farm, you will be looking at getting a piece of land running into acres. The land should be situated in a location that is far away from human settlement. This is because pigs have an awful smell that might be disturbing and irritating to neighborhoods.
However, if you do not have a large farm, you can also rear your pigs in well-ventilated pig pens. Your farmland should be located near the market, and it should also be close to the source of raw materials needed to run the farm. It should have a good source o water supply and should be motorable and have access to cars.
Construction of Pens
This is the next step after land acquisition. A pen is where pigs are housed. Construct well-ventilated and large pens to accommodate your pig depending on the quantity of pig you are rearing. The pen should be big enough to accommodate the size of the pigs. This is necessary because the pigs might injure themselves if the pen is too small. Good hygiene will also prove to be challenging to maintain if the pens are too small.
While constructing the pen, you should provide a sound drainage system to avoid waterlogging on the pen floors. Ventilation should also be a priority. These help to prevent viruses and bacteria from causing disease infections in the pig. It is better to spend money on building better pens than to spend money on treating pigs.
It would help if you also considered how you want the floor of your pen to look. Should it be clay or concrete? Clay floors can be a problem during wet periods as there might be wastage of feeds, and disease may easily infect your pig.
However, during dry periods, clay floors are okay. For concrete floors, you may have a problem with heat during dry periods. They can also lead to injuries on pigs which may bring about infection and sickness.
After pen construction, the next big move is the purchase of piglets. You should take note to purchase healthy piglets for better productivity. There are local pigs and hybrid pigs. When engaging in commercial farming, you can settle for a crossbreed of local and exotic pigs.
In Nigeria, some of the breeds of pig we have are: largely white, Yorkshire, landrace, Scarborough, etc. some of these pig breeds grow faster than others. Settle for the best and proceed to start your farm. Your pigs should be bought from trusted sources, and they should have good vaccination history with no disease records.
Feeding and Vaccination of Pig
Feeding the pig is very important for the proper growth of pigs. If you intend to rear your pig for sales, you should understand that you need a well-fed pig to attract buyers. Pigs require food that is rich in protein, minerals, fiber, and carbohydrate contents. Pigs are not selective and can eat anything, including domestic and industrial waste.
Therefore, you should feed your pig at least twice a day. Pigs have great mobility, and they roam around the field. So, you won’t have to express fear or worry as they also fend for their food.
Freshwater supply is also necessary for pigs as they tend to drink a lot of water. You or your workers should ensure that the water is clean and changed regularly. You can use troughs to feed water to your pigs.
On vaccination, ensure to give proper vaccination to your pigs at the right time. This helps to prevent any disease outbreak which might affect other pigs and lead to illness or death. Some of the diseases you should vaccinate your pigs against include:
- Atrophic rhinitis.
- Enzootic pneumonia.
- Swine dysentery.
To vaccinate your pig, you should request the services of a professional veterinarian or an animal scientist.
Every farmer aims to market their product. After rearing your pig to become fully grown and matured, the next is to look out for the available market. Pigs are an incredible source of protein and are needed by big restaurants, hotels, and lounges for their food preparation.
You can set out to meet hotel owners and take special delivery contracts of your pigs to their outlets.
You can also sell your pig at local markets to retailers who will sell them in parts. You can also supply to industries that use the pig as raw material to manufacture some of their leather products. Owning a barbecue or grill where you sell pork meats is not also a bad idea.
Pig farming is a very lucrative business in the agricultural sector. You can make a lot of money from owning a pig farm. If you are a young Nigerian and looking to venture into a business in the agricultural sector, you should consider trying pig farming.
Putting in a good amount of work and following the proper procedures outlined in this article will leave you with nothing but millions in your account. If you still need further assistance with setting up your pig farm, then you should consult an expert.