The latest calculation of the proportion of the universe: dark energy accounts for 68.5%, matter accounts for 31.5%

▲ According to the latest calculations by scientists, the sum of normal matter and dark matter accounts for 31.5% of the universe’s matter-energy density, and the remaining dark energy accounts for 68.5%.

News from November 12, Beijing time, according to foreign media reports, the matter that makes up the universe is difficult to measure. We know that the matter in the universe-energy density is mostly composed of dark energy. Dark energy is a mysterious unknown force that causes the universe to expand. . At the same time, we know that the remaining cosmic components are normal matter.

It is difficult to accurately calculate the proportions of dark matter, dark energy, and normal matter in the universe, but currently researchers say that they have made the most accurate measurements to date to determine the corresponding proportions of these matter.

According to their calculations, the sum of normal matter and dark matter accounts for 31.5% of the cosmic matter-energy density, and the remaining dark energy accounts for 68.5% .

University of California astronomer Mohamed Abdullah (Mohamed Abdullah) said: “If all matter in the universe is evenly dispersed in space, the average mass density is only 6 hydrogen atoms per cubic meter. However, since we know 80% of the The cosmic matter is actually dark matter, so most of the cosmic matter is not composed of hydrogen atoms, but a mysterious matter that cosmologists have not yet understood.”

Understanding dark energy is actually very important for us to analyze the universe. At present, we don’t know what dark energy is. The “dark” in the name of dark energy means that the substance is very mysterious. It seems to be the force driving the expansion of the universe. Speed ​​has proven difficult to narrow down to a certain point.

Once we better understand the expansion rate of dark energy, we can better understand the evolution of the entire universe. Therefore, in general, limiting the nature of dark energy is a very important task for understanding cosmology. There are many ways to Make it happen.

Abdullah and his research colleagues adopted a method based on the way matter moves in galaxy clusters, which are composed of tens of thousands of galaxies held together by gravity. Generally speaking, galaxy clusters are a good “tool” for measuring the matter of the universe, because they are composed of matter gathered together under the action of gravity during the life cycle of the universe, and they were first formed 13.8 billion years ago.

The number of star clusters observed in a certain space is very sensitive to the analysis of cosmic matter. This is a reasonable method of measuring cosmic matter, but it is not a simple task. Abdullah said: “Areas with a higher proportion of the universe will form more galaxy clusters. For our research team, the major challenge is to measure the number of galaxy clusters and then determine which is’just right’. But accurately measure any galaxy. The mass of the group is very difficult, because most of the matter is dark, we cannot use the telescope to observe.”

The research team uses a technology called “GalWeight” to help solve this problem. It uses the orbits of galaxies in and around galaxy clusters to determine which galaxies actually belong to the determined galaxy cluster, and which galaxies do not belong to the Above 98%. They pointed out that this will provide a more accurate number of galaxy clusters, which in turn will lead to more accurate mass calculations.

Anatoly Klypin, an astronomer at New Mexico State University, explained that a significant advantage of using our GalWeight galaxy orbit technology is that our team can determine the mass of each galaxy cluster individually, rather than relying on more Indirect statistical methods.

The research team applied the technology to the observation data collected by the “Sloan Digital Sky Survey” and created a catalog of galaxy clusters, and then compared these clusters with numerical simulation galaxies to calculate the total amount of matter in the universe.

The results of the research team show that 31.5% of the universe is matter and 68.5% is dark energy, which is very close to other cosmic matter-energy density measurements. Gillian Wilson, an astronomer at the University of California, Riverside, said: “We have successfully used galaxy cluster technology for the most accurate measurement calculations.”

In addition, this is the first time that galaxy orbit technology has been used. The values ​​obtained by this technology are consistent with those obtained by teams using non-cluster technologies. These non-cluster technologies include: cosmic microwave background anisotropy, baryon acoustic vibration, Ia Type supernova or gravitational lens.

The research team pointed out that the results confirm that GalWeight technology is a very useful tool for continuing to detect and determine cosmological properties. The research results are currently published in the “Astrophysical Journal”.

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